What is LAP and how does it work in India?

Loan Against Property Vs. Personal Loan

6 mins reading

Last updated on 31st January 2024

In the diverse spectrum of financial instruments available in India, Loan Against Property (LAP) stands out as a popular and versatile option for borrowers seeking substantial funds. This mechanism involves borrowing against the value of a property owned by the borrower. This article aims to demystify Loan Against Property, elucidating its working mechanism, advantages, and critical factors to consider.

Table of Contents

Understanding Loan Against Property

Loan Against Property (LAP) is a secured loan where borrowers pledge their property (residential, commercial, or industrial) as collateral to avail of funds. The loan amount is typically a certain percentage of the property’s market value, usually ranging between 40% to 70%. LAP is characterized by its flexibility in terms of usage, as the funds can be employed for various purposes including business expansion, education, medical emergencies, or even other personal needs.

How Does Loan Against Property Work?

  1. Eligibility and Application: The process begins with assessing the borrower's eligibility, which hinges on factors like income, credit history, and the property’s value. Upon successful evaluation, the borrower applies along with necessary documents, including property papers.
  2. Property Valuation and Loan Sanctioning: The lender appraises the property to ascertain its market value. Based on this valuation, the loan amount is determined and sanctioned.
  3. Loan Disbursal: After the property is pledged, the loan amount is disbursed to the borrower. This amount can vary significantly depending on the property type, location, and market conditions.
  4. Repayment: Loan Against Property typically comes with a longer repayment tenure, going up to 15-20 years. The borrower repays the loan in Equated Monthly Installments (EMIs), which include both principal and interest components.
  5. Release of Collateral: Once the loan is fully repaid, the lien on the property is removed, and it is released from the pledge.

Suggested read: Business Loan vs Loan Against Property

Benefits of Loan Against Property

  1. Higher Loan Amounts: As LAP is secured, lenders are more comfortable offering substantial sums.
  2. Lower Interest Rates: Compared to unsecured loans, loan against property interest rates are generally lower due to the reduced risk involved.
  3. Flexibility of Usage: Funds from LAP can be used for a wide range of purposes, unlike specific loans like home loans or car loans.
  4. Longer Repayment Tenure: The longer tenure eases the EMI burden on the borrower.
  5. Tax Benefits: Borrowers can avail of tax benefits if the loan is used for certain purposes like business expansion.

Loan Against Property Eligibility

To be eligible for a Loan Against Property (LAP), applicants must typically meet the following criteria:

  1. Age:  Between 21 to 65 years
  2. Income Stability: A stable source of income is crucial. This can be from employment, business, or other regular income sources.
  3. Credit Score: A good credit score (preferably above 750) is essential as it indicates creditworthiness and repayment capacity.
  4. Property Valuation: The property to be mortgaged must be duly evaluated and should meet the lender’s criteria in terms of market value, condition, and clear titles.
  5. Ownership: The applicant should have a clear ownership title to the property.

Suggested read: Loan Against Property Vs. Personal Loan

Loan Against Property Documents

The documentation required for a Loan Against Property typically includes:

  1. Identity Proof: Aadhaar Card, PAN Card, Passport, or Driving License.
  2. Address Proof: Utility bills, Passport, or any government-issued address document.
  3. Income Proof: For salaried individuals, recent salary slips and Form 16. For self-employed, income tax returns, profit and loss statements, balance sheets, etc.
  4. Property Documents: Title deeds, No Objection Certificates, and other relevant property papers.
  5. Bank Statements: To assess financial stability and transaction history.
  6. Photographs: Passport-sized photographs of the applicant and co-applicants.

Loan Against Property Fees and Charges

The fees and charges* associated with a Loan Against Property might include:

  1. Processing Fee: A percentage of the loan amount charged for processing the loan.
  2. Legal and Technical Valuation Charges: Fees for legal scrutiny of documents and property valuation.
  3. Foreclosure Charges: If you repay the loan before the tenure, some lenders may charge a penalty.
  4. Prepayment Charges: Fees for partial prepayment of the loan before its tenure.
  5. Other Charges: These might include administrative fees, documentation charges, etc.

*It's essential to review the specific fees, as these can vary widely among different lenders.

Suggested read: Home Loan vs. Loan Against Property

Considerations and Risks in Loan Against Property

  1. Risk of Losing the Property: The most significant risk in LAP is the potential loss of the property in case of default.
  2. Interest Rate Fluctuations: If opting for a floating rate, the EMIs can vary with market fluctuations.
  3. Processing Time and Costs: The process of loan approval and disbursement in LAP can be lengthy due to property evaluation. Additionally, there are processing fees and legal charges involved.
  4. Impact on Future Loan Eligibility: Since the property is pledged, it may not be available as collateral for other loans until the LAP is cleared.

How to Choose the Right LAP Product

  1. Interest Rate Comparison: Compare interest rates from different lenders to find the most cost-effective option.
  2. Evaluate Tenure Options: Choose a tenure that aligns with your repayment capacity.
  3. Understand the Terms and Conditions: Be clear about the terms, especially regarding prepayment charges, loan-to-value ratio, and processing fees.
  4. Consider the Lender’s Reputation: Opt for a lender with a strong reputation for transparency and customer service.

Loan Against Property is a robust financial tool that offers liquidity against the value of a property. Its benefits like high loan value, lower interest rates, and flexibility make it a preferred choice for many. However, it is imperative for borrowers to carefully assess their repayment capacity and understand the implications of pledging their property. With prudent planning and informed decision-making, a Loan Against Property can be an effective way to meet substantial financial requirements while leveraging an existing asset. As with any financial commitment, the key lies in striking a balance between immediate financial needs and long-term financial health.

FAQs About Loan Against Property(LAP)

The loan amount you can get against your property typically ranges from 40% to 70% of the property's market value. However, this can vary depending on the lender's policies and your property's condition, location, and other factors.

A CIBIL score of 750 or above is generally considered good for applying for a loan against property. However, some lenders might consider scores as low as 650, depending on other factors like income stability and property value.

The property itself serves as the security or collateral for a Loan Against Property. This means the lender holds a lien on the property until the loan is fully repaid.

Yes, you can avail a Loan Against Property for a commercial property. Lenders provide loans against various types of properties, including commercial ones, based on their valuation.

Eligible properties for Loan Against Property typically include residential properties (houses, apartments), commercial properties (office buildings, shops), and sometimes even industrial properties. The property must have clear titles and meet the lender's criteria.

Published on 14th December 2022