All You Need to Know About Purchasing Patta Land: Steps and Tips for Buyers

6 mins read

Last updated on 8th May 2024

Purchasing land can be a significant investment, and when it comes to buying Patta land, there are specific nuances that every potential buyer should understand. Patta land refers to a parcel of land that is legally owned and for which the government has issued a Patta—a legal document that serves as a proof of ownership. This blog will explore what Patta land is, its importance, and essential tips for buyers.

Understanding Patta Land

Patta is a legal document issued by the government to an individual or entity as proof of ownership of a specific piece of land. Also known as ‘Record of Rights’, this document is crucial in regions where it is recognized because it records the details about the land, such as its size, location, and the name of the owner. The Patta is an essential document in property transfer transactions as it establishes the legitimacy of the land's title. In most cases, the state’s revenue officials are responsible for documenting, updating and issuing them when required.

Why is a Patta Important?

  1. Legal Ownership Proof: The Patta serves as the primary legal document to establish the rightful ownership of a piece of land. It is often required by banks for loan processing and by governmental authorities for any construction or development activity.
  2. Smooth Transactions: Having a Patta simplifies buying and selling processes, as it provides clear information and legitimacy to the transaction, helping in avoiding disputes over land ownership.
  3. Necessary for Registration: In many regions, transfer of land ownership cannot occur without a Patta transfer. It ensures that all land records are updated and accurate.

Tips for Buyers Purchasing Patta Land

  1. Verify the Patta: Before proceeding with any land purchase, ensure the Patta is verified. This can be done by checking with the local land records office. Ensure the seller’s name on the Patta matches with the person you are dealing with.
  2. Check for Encumbrances: It’s crucial to check if the land is free from legal dues and encumbrances. Obtain an Encumbrance Certificate (EC) for the property that covers at least the last 30 years.
  3. Land Survey: Hire a professional surveyor to measure the land and verify the physical boundaries and measurements listed in the Patta document. This prevents any future disputes related to land boundaries.
  4. Approval for Transfer: When purchasing Patta land, ensure that you can get the Patta transferred to your name after purchase. This sometimes involves local governmental or bureaucratic procedures, which should be understood beforehand.
  5. Consult Legal Help: Due to the complexities involved in land transactions, consulting with a lawyer who specializes in real estate is advisable. They can help navigate the paperwork, ensure the legality of the documents, and provide advice on any local nuances in property law.
  6. Plan for Future Use: Understand zoning regulations and any land use restrictions in the area where the land is located. This is crucial if you have specific plans, such as building a house or using the land for agricultural purposes.

Where is the concept of “Patta” used in India?

In India, the concept of "Patta" is commonly used in several states but is most prevalent in Tamil Nadu. The term and its equivalent might vary by region due to different land record management systems. Here's a brief overview of where Patta or its equivalents are applicable:

  1. Tamil Nadu: The term "Patta" is commonly used in Tamil Nadu. It represents the land ownership records maintained by the state government, indicating the legal owner of the property.
  2. West Bengal: In West Bengal, similar records are referred to as "Record of Rights" or "Porcha".
  3. Maharashtra: Here, the document equivalent to a Patta is known as “Satbara Utara”, which includes details about the land and the owner.
  4. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana: These states refer to it as "Pahani" or "Adangal", which are revenue records indicating details about the land, including the owner's details.
  5. Karnataka: In Karnataka, the land ownership document is called "RTC" or "Pahani".
  6. North-Eastern States: In states like Assam, similar records are known as "Jamabandi" or "Patta".
  7. Punjab and Haryana: The document is referred to as “Jamabandi” or “Fard” which serves as a record of land rights.
  8. Rajasthan: Similar documentation in Rajasthan is also called "Jamabandi" or "Bhulekh".

These documents, irrespective of their names, serve a similar purpose across different states—they provide evidence of land ownership and are crucial for any transaction or legal process involving land. It's important for buyers to understand the local terminology and procedure for obtaining these documents as part of their due diligence when purchasing land. Always consult local authorities or a legal expert familiar with real estate laws in the specific state to ensure all legal requirements are met during the land buying process.

Which property types require land patta?

In India, a land Patta is generally required for most types of immovable properties, especially those involving land parcels. Here are some specific scenarios and property types for which a Patta is typically necessary:

  1. Vacant Land: Any vacant plot or parcel of land that is intended for construction or investment purposes usually requires a Patta. This document serves as proof of lawful possession and is crucial when applying for building permits or any form of construction approval.
  2. Agricultural Land: For agricultural lands, a Patta is essential as it includes details about the land type, area, and the legal status of the owner. It is particularly important for securing loans, subsidies, or grants offered by government agricultural schemes.
  3. Residential Plots: Residential properties, especially individual houses or plots within a development, often require a Patta. It is a critical document during the sale or purchase of the property, ensuring the legality of the transaction and ownership.
  4. Commercial Properties: Commercial properties that are built on land parcels, such as shops, office buildings, or factories, also require a Patta to confirm ownership of the underlying land. This documentation is necessary for legal and municipal compliance.
  5. Converted Lands: Lands that are converted from one zoning classification to another, such as agricultural to residential or commercial, need a Patta to reflect the change in land use and to confirm the owner's rights under the new classification.


However, it's important to note that in some Indian states, properties within municipal or corporation limits might not require a Patta. Instead, other forms of documentation like a title deed or sale deed might suffice to prove ownership. In such cases, the municipal corporation records serve the purpose of confirming property ownership, and the need for a Patta may be circumvented. Additionally, certain types of leasehold properties, where the land is leased from the government or a private entity, may not require a Patta since the lessee does not own the land outright but has only usage rights for a specified period.

In summary, while a Patta is crucial for most types of land-based properties in India, the specific requirements can vary based on local regulations and the type of property. Consulting with local land authorities or a property lawyer can provide clarity on the need for a Patta in particular scenarios.

What are the details available on Land patta?

The Land Patta format or details can vary slightly depending on the state where the land is located, as land record management is primarily a state responsibility. However, there are common elements that you can expect to find in almost every Patta document. A typical Patta will include the following key details:

  1. Patta Number: Each Patta is assigned a unique number which is used to track and manage the land records in government databases.
  2. Owner's Details: This section contains the name and address of the current landowner, as registered in the official records.
  3. Survey Number/Subdivision: The Patta will list the survey number of the land, which is a unique number given to a specific piece of land in the government's survey records. If the land has been subdivided, those details will also be included.
  4. Land Location and Area: Details about the exact location of the land, including village, taluk, and district, along with the total area of the land (usually in hectares or acres).
  5. Land Type: The Patta specifies the type of land, such as wetland, dryland, agricultural, residential, etc.
  6. Tax Details: Information about the tax assessed on the property and whether it is up to date.
  7. Land Boundaries: A description of the land's boundaries based on the surrounding landmarks or adjacent properties.

How to Obtain a Patta

To obtain a Patta, one must apply through the local Tehsildar's office or the land revenue department. The application must be accompanied by documents such as the sale deed, proof of possession, and an encumbrance certificate, among others. In some states, this process can also be done online through the state's official land records website.

The Patta serves as a crucial document for establishing legal land ownership and is essential for transactions such as sales, inheritance, and obtaining loans where the land is used as collateral.

Purchasing Patta land is a significant decision that requires careful consideration and due diligence. By understanding the importance of the Patta, ensuring the land is free from encumbrances, and complying with local laws and regulations, buyers can make informed decisions that secure their investment.

Yes, buying patta land is beneficial as it provides legal ownership proof, making transactions more secure and facilitating easier access to loans.

The cost of obtaining a patta varies by location but generally involves nominal fees ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand rupees, depending on the administrative expenses in your region.

Rules for obtaining a patta include proving legal ownership with documents like sale deeds and tax receipts, and submitting an application to the local land revenue office.

There are several types of patta lands based on the nature of ownership and land use, including individual patta, joint patta, and special types like dharkast patta for government-granted land reforms.

Patta is a legal document proving land ownership under the government's records, primarily used in some states of India. Registered land refers to land that has been registered at a registrar office, with a deed that also serves as proof of ownership. Patta is specific to certain local requirements, whereas registered deeds are universally recognized as ownership evidence.

Published on 8th May 2024